Bombardier’s TRAXX P160 AC locomotive
Bombardier’s TRAXX P160 AC locomotive is part of the TRAXX class of locomotives and was designed for passenger transport at speeds of up to 160 km/h. It can be adapted for speeds of 200 km/h by changing only the gear ratio. The replacement of bogies is not necessary. The major structure difference compared to the TRAXX F140 AC variant, exhibited during the 2010 edition of the “Railway Days”, consists in suspending the mechanical drive system. While, at the TRAXX F140 AC locomotive, the traction motor and the gear partially lean on the axle (“nose” suspension) and partially on the edge of the bogie, at the TRAXX P160 AC locomotive, the traction motor and the gear are entirely suspended on a hollow shaft which “covers” the wheelset. The advantage of using this alternative manufacturing method consists in reducing the non-suspended load which accentuates the dynamic impact, especially at high speeds. The self-supporting locomotive body meets the current international crash standards. The “crash” concept was elaborated and developed for the TRAXX class of locomotives, based on the new European prEN 15227:2007 norms, “Crashworthiness Requirements for Railway Vehicle Bodies”. The concept integrated in the body structure guarantees the three-stage reduction of power with a defined progress of distortion: in stage one, distortion can be absorbed with the help of high-capacity buffers “ST-Crash Puffer G1”, an energy of up to 30 … 40 kJ per element, in stage II with the help of external distortion elements up to 1.5 MJ can be absorbed at both vehicle ends and in stage III, up to 3 MJ can be absorbed from the area defined by the internal structure in the front end of the driver’s cabin and of the underframe. The layout of the machine room corresponds to the concept of modern three phase locomotives with cabins on both ends, a central aisle with symmetrical arrangement of converters, cooling towers, traction motor blowers in order to achieve an ideal centre of gravity. The cabins are ergonomic and equipped with air-conditioning and pressure protection systems. Bogies convey the tractive effort in the body through a “low” traction rod, thus helping reduce the climbing of the locomotive. The axle guiding system provides a radial adjustment in curves which helps reduce the wear of both the wheelsets and the rails in curves. The locomotive is equipped with latest generation equipments and is driven by three-phase asynchronous AC electric traction motors. The vector control is used to regulate engines as there are supplied with variable voltage and frequency from electronic converters developed according to the IGBT method. The automated train protection systems include: PZB – (punctual train control), a system also used on the CFR network, LZB (linear train control), used in Germany and Austria, EVM 120 in Hungary. The locomotive is also equipped with the ETCS L1/L2 system.